Inclusion of Photolyase in Sunscreen and its Effects
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UV-induced DNA damage has negative consequences on human skin health as it can lead to diseases such as photoaging, immunosuppression, and skin cancer. The most common form of UV-induced DNA damage is cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which disrupt the bond arrangements of normal DNA and hinder normal DNA mechanisms. Humans have a DNA repair mechanism known as nucleotide-excision repair (NER), but other organisms have an enzyme called photolyase that is a part of a process known as photoreactivation that fixes CPDs. In addition, other organisms have an enzyme called T4 endonuclease V that relies on a different process but still repairs CPDs. Scientists are looking into these enzymes intending to incorporate them into sunscreens for humans who have UV-induced skin diseases. The studies that have been done so far generally show that photolyase and T4 endonuclease are effective when it comes to repairing CPDs in humans. Therefore, adding both of these enzymes to sunscreen can potentially significantly reduce CPDs and possibly be a new treatment and preventative method for UV-induced skin diseases/conditions. However, larger clinical studies are still needed to confirm the initial data and conclusions.
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