Class of 2024
- "Advancements in Immunotherapies: A Comprehensive Review of Their Applications to Cancer Therapies" with mentor Hannah (Oct. 26, 2023)
Advancements in Immunotherapies: A Comprehensive Review of Their Applications to Cancer Therapies
Started May 25, 2023
Abstract or project description
Cancer is a leading cause of global health problems, and requires more effective and less onerous treatments than traditional approaches such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Immunotherapies are a relatively new form of treatment which hone in on the body's standard immune responses to fight against the cancer. This review discusses four prominent immunotherapy methods: Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) therapy, Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell (CAR-T) therapy, Cancer Vaccines, and Immune System Modulators. TIL therapy relies on extracting the T cells from the tumor in the body, developing them, and using them against the tumor through reinfusion. Recent studies show the improved effectiveness when the cultured T cells are tethered with interleukin-12 to enhance its effectiveness and reduce side effects. CAR-T therapy consists of engineering T cells to recognize cancer antigens, and fight against the cancerous tumors the cell is acquitted to. Studies are being done to expand the usage of CAR-T therapy to numerous types of cancers. Cancer vaccines elicit an immune response with the presence of a small cancer in the body. Innovations are being implemented to implant different cells to augment T cell response. Immune System Modulators aid in the immune response to different therapies and can be added to improve efficacy of each immunotherapy. This review explores the prominent immunotherapies in the field, advancements being done to improve each immunotherapy, and specific studies related to each immunotherapy.