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Primordial Nucleosynthesis and Its Key Parameters

Project by Polygence alum Muhammd Junaid

Primordial Nucleosynthesis and Its Key Parameters

Project's result

The Standard Model of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) has been thoroughly discussed in relation to the dominant theory of primordial nucleosynthesis. The main goal of this paper was to discuss the sig- nificance of the key parameters which are Neutron- proton ratio and Baryon-Photon ratio, which lead to the setting-up initial conditions for the formation of matter. The primary factor influencing the abun- dances of light elements following the completion of nucleosynthesis is the baryon-photon ratio, or η. Likewise, Neutron-Proton ratio contributed towards the formation of stable Helium nuclei.

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In this paper, I have discussed the evolution of universe since the "Plank’s Era" up until now along with the crucial parameters (Neutron Photon ratio and Baryon Photon ratio) which played an important role in "Baryogenesis" between the "Quark Epoch (Temp = 1013 K and Time = 10−12 sec to 10−6 sec)" and "Hadron Epoch(Temp = 1010K and Time = 10−6 sec to 1sec)" with additional calculations from Wien’s Law. Those key parameters also played an important role in the formation of light elements during the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) as described by the standard model of Big Bang cosmology.



Polygence mentor

PhD Doctor of Philosophy candidate




Astrophysics, Astronomy

Muhammd Junaid

Muhammd Junaid


Hi! I hope all of your are having a great day. My Polygence project is aimed at "Primordial Nucleosynthesis and Its Key Parameters." I'm conducting this research to broaden the horizons of knowledge regarding the cosmos and that project will help me in getting a pre-college experience of the Astrophysics and Astronomy which will be my major in the college.

Graduation Year


Project review

“After meeting my mentor and joining Polygence, I was not only challenged to think out of the box but I was also assisted with my college applications.”

About my mentor

“Apart from exposing me to the new Astrophysics and Astronomy field of interest and helping me in completing my project, my mentor helped me with the college applications such as editing common app and supplemental essays.”